Category Archives: Math

Gumowski/Mira Pseudo-Soundwave

Actionscript:
  1. [SWF(width = 600, height = 600)]
  2. var a:Number = 0.02;
  3. var b:Number = .9998;
  4.  
  5. var xn1:Number = 5;
  6. var yn1:Number = 0;
  7. var xn:Number, yn:Number;
  8.  
  9. var scale:Number = 10;
  10. var iterations:Number = 20000;
  11. var step:Number = stage.stageWidth / iterations;
  12.  
  13. function f(x:Number):Number{
  14.     var x2:Number = x * x;
  15.     return a * x + (2 * (1 - a) * x2) / (1 + x2);
  16. }
  17.  
  18. var canvas:BitmapData = Bitmap(addChild(new Bitmap(new BitmapData(600,600,false,0xEFEFEF)))).bitmapData;
  19.  
  20. var circle = new Sprite();
  21. with(circle.graphics) beginFill(0, 0.3), drawCircle(2,2,1);
  22.  
  23. var dot:BitmapData = new BitmapData(4,4,true, 0x00000000);
  24. dot.draw(circle);
  25.  
  26. var pnt:Point = new Point();
  27.  
  28. var txt:TextField = TextField(addChild(new TextField()));
  29. txt.text = "move mouse";
  30.                                                       
  31. addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, onLoop);
  32. function onLoop(evt:Event):void {
  33.    
  34.     canvas.fillRect(canvas.rect, 0xEFEFEF);
  35.  
  36.     a = mouseY / 1000;
  37.     xn1 = mouseX / 30;
  38.     yn1 = 0;
  39.     for (var i:int = 0; i<iterations; i++){
  40.           xn = xn1;
  41.           yn = yn1;
  42.          
  43.           xn1 = b * yn + f(xn);
  44.           yn1 =  -xn + f(xn1);
  45.           pnt.x = i * step;
  46.           pnt.y = 300 + yn1 * scale;
  47.           canvas.copyPixels(dot, dot.rect, pnt, null, null, true);
  48.        
  49.     }
  50. }

Try it out:

Gumowski Mira Pseudo-soundwave - wonderfl build flash online

Also posted in BitmapData, Graphics, graphics algorithms | Leave a comment

Closest Point on a Line

Actionscript:
  1. // from
  2. // http://www.gamedev.net/topic/444154-closest-point-on-a-line/
  3.  
  4. function getClosestPoint(A:*, B:*, P:*, segmentClamp:Boolean=true):Point {
  5.     var AP:Point = new Point(P.x - A.x, P.y - A.y),
  6.         AB:Point = new Point(B.x - A.x, B.y - A.y);
  7.     var ab2:Number=AB.x*AB.x+AB.y*AB.y;
  8.     var ap_ab:Number=AP.x*AB.x+AP.y*AB.y;
  9.     var t:Number=ap_ab/ab2;
  10.     if (segmentClamp) {
  11.         if (t<0.0) {
  12.             t=0.0;
  13.         } else if (t> 1.0) {
  14.             t=1.0;
  15.         }
  16.  
  17.     }
  18.     return new Point(A.x + AB.x * t, A.y + AB.y * t);
  19. }
  20.  
  21.  
  22. var point:Sprite = Sprite(addChild(new Sprite()));
  23. point.x = 50;
  24. point.y = 50;
  25. with(point.graphics) beginFill(0), drawCircle(0,0, 3);
  26.  
  27. var line:MovieClip = MovieClip(addChild(new MovieClip()));
  28. line.a = new Point(20, 100);
  29. line.b = new Point(300, 60);
  30. with(line.graphics) lineStyle(0), moveTo(line.a.x, line.a.y), lineTo(line.b.x, line.b.y);
  31.  
  32. var closestPoint:Point = getClosestPoint(line.a, line.b, point);
  33.  
  34. var closest:Sprite = Sprite(addChild(new Sprite()));
  35. closest.x = closestPoint.x;
  36. closest.y = closestPoint.y;
  37. with(closest.graphics) beginFill(0xFF0000), drawCircle(0,0, 3);

Posted in Math | Leave a comment

Fish Curve

Actionscript:
  1. var xp:Number = 0;
  2. var yp:Number = 0;
  3. var t:Number = 0;
  4. var a:Number = 200;
  5. x = stage.stageWidth / 2;
  6. y = stage.stageHeight / 2;
  7.  
  8. graphics.lineStyle(0,0x000000);
  9. addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, onRun);
  10. function onRun(evt:Event):void {
  11.     xp = a * Math.cos(t) - (a * Math.pow(Math.sin(t),2))/Math.sqrt(2);
  12.     yp = a * Math.cos(t) * Math.sin(t);
  13.     if (t == 0){
  14.       graphics.moveTo(xp, yp);
  15.     }else{
  16.       graphics.lineTo(xp, yp);
  17.     }
  18.     t += 0.05;
  19. }

While surfing mathworld I stumbled upon the equation for something called the Fish Curve. This snippet will draw something like this:

Also posted in misc | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Astroid Pedal Curve Variation

Actionscript:
  1. var xp:Number = 0;
  2. var yp:Number = 0;
  3. var t:Number = 0;
  4. var r:Number = 200;
  5. x = stage.stageWidth / 2;
  6. y = stage.stageHeight / 2;
  7.  
  8. graphics.lineStyle(0,0x000000);
  9. addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, onRun);
  10. function onRun(evt:Event):void {
  11.     r = 200 * Math.cos(t / 10);
  12.     xp = r * Math.pow(Math.cos(t), 3);
  13.     yp = r * Math.pow(Math.sin(t), 3);
  14.     if (t == 0){
  15.       graphics.moveTo(xp, yp);
  16.     }else{
  17.       graphics.lineTo(xp, yp);
  18.     }
  19.     t += 0.1;
  20. }

While browsing mathworld I decided to do a variation on this curve . The above snippet will draw something like this:

Also posted in misc | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Logistic Map Play

Actionscript:
  1. var offX:Number = 100;
  2. var offY:Number = 300;
  3. var scalarX:Number = 6;
  4. var scalarY:Number = 200;
  5. addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, onLoop);
  6. function onLoop(evt:Event):void{
  7.     var r:Number = mouseY / 100;
  8.     var xn:Number = (mouseX - 100) / 650;
  9.     var xn1:Number = 0;
  10.     graphics.clear();
  11.     graphics.lineStyle(0,0);
  12.     for (var i:int = 0; i<100; i++){
  13.       xn1 = r * xn * (1 - xn);
  14.       xn = xn1;
  15.       if (i == 0){
  16.         graphics.moveTo(offX+i*scalarX,offY+xn1*scalarY);  
  17.       }else{
  18.         graphics.lineTo(offX+i*scalarX, offY+xn1*scalarY);
  19.       }
  20.     }
  21. }

Whenever I can't decide what kind of snippet to make, I simply go to wikipedia or mathworld for a bit and I always end up with something. I've messed with Logistic Maps before (when learning about strange attractors). This is a simple rendering where the x and y axis change the biotic potential (r) and the starting value for x.

Here is the link I used for reference.


Have a look at the swf (just move your mouse around).

Also posted in Graphics, misc | Tagged , , | 2 Comments

Connect The Dots E8

Actionscript:
  1. [SWF(width = 500, height = 500)]
  2. const TWO_PI:Number = Math.PI * 2;
  3. var centerX:Number = stage.stageWidth / 2;
  4. var centerY:Number = stage.stageHeight / 2;
  5. addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, onLoop);
  6. function onLoop(evt:Event):void{
  7.     // data
  8.     var points:Array = [];
  9.     var i:int = 0;
  10.     var pointNum : int = Math.max(2,int(mouseX / 12))
  11.    
  12.     var radius:Number = 200;
  13.     var step:Number = TWO_PI / pointNum;
  14.     var theta:Number = step / 2;
  15.     for (i = 0; i<pointNum; i++){
  16.         var xp:Number = centerX + radius * Math.cos(theta);
  17.         var yp:Number = centerY + radius * Math.sin(theta);
  18.         points[i] = new Point(xp, yp);
  19.         theta += step;
  20.     }
  21.     // render
  22.     graphics.clear();
  23.     graphics.lineStyle(0,0);
  24.     for ( i = 0; i<pointNum; i++){
  25.      var a:Point = points[i];
  26.      for (var j:int = 0; j<pointNum; j++){
  27.         var b:Point = points[j];
  28.         if (a != b){
  29.            graphics.drawCircle(a.x, a.y, 10);
  30.            graphics.moveTo(a.x, a.y);
  31.            graphics.lineTo(b.x, b.y);
  32.         }
  33.      }
  34.    }
  35. }

I've been using this geometric shape for lots of different things recently. Including during consulting gigs as a helpful visualization. Just move your mouse left and right... I particularly like the simpler forms you get by moving your mouse to the left (triangles squares and simple polygons):

While not entirely related this wikipedia article is interesting.

[EDIT : Thanks to martin for reminding me that I can do away with the if statement here in the above code ]

Actionscript:
  1. graphics.clear();
  2. graphics.lineStyle(0,0);
  3. for (i = 0; i<pointNum; i++) {
  4.     var a:Point=points[i];
  5.     for (var j:int = i+1; j<pointNum; j++) {
  6.         var b:Point=points[j];
  7.         graphics.drawCircle(a.x, a.y, 10);
  8.         graphics.moveTo(a.x, a.y);
  9.         graphics.lineTo(b.x, b.y);
  10.     }
  11. }
  12. graphics.drawCircle(a.x, a.y, 10);

I implemented that change over at wonderfl and it works nicely

Also posted in Graphics, misc | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

Polar Coordinates Distribution

If you're at all interested in watching me free from code. I recorded a video of me coding this snippet (which is about 11 minutes long or so).

In the video I create a few functions that allow you to draw shapes like these:

Mathematically this stuff is really simple ... the free form nature of the video takes a less technical perspective as you'll see (I even made a few funny mistakes).



Actionscript:
  1. [SWF(width = 600, height = 600)]
  2. var dotNum:int = 1000;
  3. var dotRad:Number = 0.5;
  4.  
  5. x = 120
  6. y = 100;
  7.  
  8. // extra stuff to display what the functions can do
  9. stage.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, onDrawAll);
  10.  
  11. function onDrawAll(evt:Event):void{
  12.     graphics.clear();
  13.     for (var i:int = 0; i<16; i++){
  14.         var m:Number;
  15.    
  16.         var rad:Number = 120;
  17.         var xp:Number = i % 4 * rad
  18.         var yp:Number = int(i / 4) * rad
  19.    
  20.         var type:int = int(Math.random() * 4);
  21.         if (type == 0){
  22.           makeShape(xp, yp, rad-60, Math.random() , 1);
  23.         }else if (type == 1){
  24.            makeShape(xp, yp, rad-60, 1,  Math.random());
  25.         }
  26.         else if (type == 2){
  27.            m = Math.random() * 2;
  28.            makeShape(xp, yp, rad-Math.random()*120, m, m);
  29.         }
  30.         else if (type == 3){
  31.            m = Math.random() * 2;
  32.            makeShape(xp, yp, rad-Math.random()*120, m, m/2);
  33.         }
  34.     }
  35. }
  36.  
  37. // main part from the video
  38. function makeShape(xp:Number, yp:Number,
  39.                    maxRad:Number = 100,m0:Number=1,
  40.                    m1:Number=1):void{
  41.     var polarX:Number;
  42.     var polarY:Number;
  43.     var radius:Number;
  44.     graphics.lineStyle(0, 0);
  45.     var theta:Number = Math.random() * Math.PI * 2;
  46.     for (var i:int = 0; i<dotNum; i++){
  47.         radius = Math.random() * maxRad
  48.         polarX = xp + radius * Math.cos(theta * m0);
  49.         polarY = yp + radius * Math.sin(theta * m1);
  50.         theta += 0.1;
  51.          
  52.         makeDot(polarX, polarY);
  53.        
  54.     }
  55. }
  56.  
  57. function makeDot(xp:Number, yp:Number, fillColor:uint = 0x000000):void{
  58.     graphics.beginFill(fillColor);
  59.     graphics.drawCircle(xp, yp, dotRad);
  60.     graphics.endFill();
  61. }

Here it is over at wonderf:

Also posted in Graphics, functions, misc | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

Prefix Notation (Lisp Style)

Today's quiz is not multiple choice. Instead, your task is to write a lisp style math parser. This may sound tricky, but it's surprisingly simple. (well... not simple exactly, it's just simple compared to what one might assume).

Lisp uses prefix notation... where the operator is placed before the operands:

10 * 10

becomes:

* 10 10

You could think of this as a function "*" with two arguments (10, 10). In Lisp this is enclosed with parens:

(* 10 10)

Let's see a few more examples:

100 / 2 + 10

becomes:

(+ (/ 100 2) 10)

...
2 * 4 * 6 * 7

becomes:

(* 2 4 6 7)

...

(2 + 2) * (10 - 2) * 2

becomes

(* (+ 2 2) (- 10 2) 2)

Remember, thinking "functions" really helps. The above can be though of as:

multiply( add(2, 2), subtract(10 , 2), 2)

You should create a function called parsePrefix() that takes a string and returns a number:

Here is some code to test if your parser works properly:

Actionscript:
  1. trace(parsePrefix("(* 10 10)"));
  2.  
  3. trace(parsePrefix("(* 1 (+ 20 2 (* 2 7) 1) 2)"));
  4.  
  5. trace(parsePrefix("(/ 22 7)"));
  6.  
  7. trace(parsePrefix("(+ (/ 1 1) (/ 1 2) (/ 1 3) (/ 1 4))"));
  8.  
  9. /* Should trace out:
  10. 100
  11. 74
  12. 3.142857142857143
  13. 2.083333333333333
  14. */

I highly recommend giving this a try, it was one of those cases where I assumed it would be much trickier than it was.

I've posted my solution here.

Also posted in Quiz | Tagged , , , , | 4 Comments

Float as a Fraction

Actionscript:
  1. // print some floats as fractions
  2. printFraction(0.5);
  3. printFraction(0.75);
  4. printFraction(0.48);
  5.  
  6. // try something a little more complex
  7. var float:Number = 0.98765432;
  8. trace("\na more complex example:");
  9. printFraction(float);
  10. var frac:Array = asFraction(float);
  11. trace("double check it:");
  12. trace(frac[0] + "/" + frac[1] +" = " + frac[0] / frac[1]);
  13.  
  14. /* outputs:
  15. 0.5 = 1/2
  16. 0.75 = 3/4
  17. 0.48 = 12/25
  18.  
  19. a more complex example:
  20. 0.98765432 = 12345679/12500000
  21. double check it:
  22. 12345679/12500000 = 0.98765432
  23. */
  24.  
  25.  
  26. function printFraction(n:Number):void{
  27.     var frac:Array = asFraction(n);
  28.     trace(n + " = " + frac[0] + "/" + frac[1]);
  29. }
  30.  
  31. // takes any value less than one and returns an array
  32. // with the numerator at index 0 and the denominator at index 1
  33. function asFraction(num:Number):Array{
  34.     var decimalPlaces:int = num.toString().split(".")[1].length;
  35.     var denom:Number = Math.pow(10, decimalPlaces);
  36.     return reduceFraction(num * denom, denom);
  37. }
  38.  
  39. // divide the numerator and denominator by the GCF
  40. function reduceFraction(numerator:int, denominator:Number):Array{
  41.     // divide by the greatest common factor
  42.     var divisor:int = gcf(numerator, denominator);
  43.     if (divisor){
  44.         numerator /= divisor;
  45.         denominator /= divisor;
  46.     }
  47.     return [numerator, denominator];
  48. }
  49.                    
  50. // get the greatest common factor of two integers
  51. function gcf(a:int, b:int):int{
  52.     var remainder:int;
  53.     var factor:Number = 0;
  54.     var maxIter:int = 100;
  55.     var i:int = 0;
  56.     while (1){
  57.         if (b> a){
  58.            var swap:int = a;
  59.            a = b;
  60.            b = swap;
  61.         }
  62.         remainder = a % b;
  63.         a = b;
  64.         b = remainder
  65.         if (remainder == 0){
  66.             factor = a;
  67.             break;
  68.         }else if (remainder==1){
  69.             break;
  70.         }else if (i> maxIter){
  71.             trace("failed to calculate gcf");
  72.             break;
  73.         }
  74.         i++;
  75.     }
  76.     return factor;
  77. }

This snippet contains a few functions for calculating fractions based on float values. Writing this brought back some memories from grade school math.

Also posted in misc | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

Greatest Common Factor (divisor)

Actionscript:
  1. trace(gcf(75,145));
  2.  
  3. // outputs 5
  4.  
  5. function gcf(a:int, b:int):int{
  6.     var remainder:int;
  7.     var factor:Number = 0;
  8.     while (1){
  9.         if (b> a){
  10.            var swap:int = a;
  11.            a = b;
  12.            b = swap;
  13.         }
  14.         remainder = a % b;
  15.         a = b;
  16.         b = remainder
  17.         if (remainder == 0){
  18.             factor = a;
  19.             break;
  20.         }else if (remainder==1){
  21.          
  22.             break;
  23.         }
  24.     }
  25.     return factor;
  26. }

I was messing around with Egyptian Fractions and found myself in need of some interesting functions. The first function I realized I would be needing was for a greatest common factor (GCF or GCD).

The above snippet is a quick implementation of Euclid's algorithm. It will return 0 if no GCF is found...

I wrote a few helper functions while working with Egyptian fractions... will post them over the next few days.

Posted in Math | Tagged , , | 4 Comments